Saturday, October 8, 2011

"Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials" - Definition of Fluoride and Sodium Fluoride

The definition of "flourides" and "sodium flouride" from the 1968 edition of "Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials - Fourth Edition" by N. Irving Sax is as follows:

The toxic hazard rating code defines a rating of a 3 as:
"3. HIGH: May cause death or permanent injury after very short exposure to small quantities."

Hazard Analysis
Toxic Hazard Rating

  • Acute Local: Irritant 3
  • Acute Systemic: Ingestion 3; Inhalation 3
  • Chronic Local: Irritant 3
  • Chronic Systemic: Ingestion 3; Inhalation 3
Inorganic fluorides are generally highly irritant and toxic. Acute effects resulting from exposure to fluorine compounds are due to hydrogen fluoride. Chronic fluorine poisoning, or "fluorosis," occurs among miners of cryolite, and consists of a sclerosis of the bones, caused by fix action of the calcium by the fluorine. There may also be some calcification of the ligaments. The teeth are motled, and there is osteosclerosis and osteomalacia. The bony and ligamentous changes are demonstrable by x-ray. Estimated LD (man) = 2.5g.

Loss of weight, anorexia, anemia, wasting, and cachexia, and dental defects are among the common finding in chronic fluorine poisoning. There may be an eosinophilia, and impairment of growth in young workers. Symptoms of intoxication include gastric, intestinal, circulatory, respiratory and nervous complaints and skin rashes. 

Organic fluorides are generally less toxic than other halogenated hydrocarbons.

Common air contaminants.

Disaster Hazard: Dangerous; when heated to decomposition or on contact with acid or acid fumes, they emit highly toxic fumes.

Ventilation Control: Section 2
Personnel Protection: Section 2
Storage and Handling: Section 7

*This material has been assigned a threshold Limit Value by ACGIH. See complete reprint of TLV's in Section 1. 

Sodium Fluoride: 

General Information
Synonym. villiaumite.
Clear, lustrous crystals or white powder or balls.
Formula: NaF Mol wt: 42.00, mp: 993°C, bp 1700°C, d: 2 at 41°C, vap. press.: 1 mm at 1077°C.

Hazard Analysis: 
Highly toxic. See fluorides. Doses of 25 to 50mg can cause severe vomiting, diarrhea and CNS manifestations. An insecticide. Lethal dose to man is taken as 75-150 mg/kg. It also is very phytotoxic.

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